Warps – these are the strings that stretch between the beams and on which the knots are tied. Cotton is mostly used for warping as it is simpler to weave straight; flat rug using cotton warps than wool warps. However, where cotton is not available especially among pastoralist communities wool is used instead of cotton.
Weft – this run across the rugs width. They go under and over the warps and in between knots. Wefts are usually made of silk, cotton or wool. They hold in place rows of knots and strengthen the rugs structure.
Knots – tied by making loops of yarn round paired warps and cut the standing end off. The knot ends make the rug nap or pile.
Edge bindings – several warps are wrapped at the rug’s edge together with yarn to make the edges of the rug strong.
End finishes – hold wefts and knots in place so that they do not work off the warp strings of the rug. The edge of many rugs has woven selvedge at the ends.
Fringes – This is done by gathering warp strings into bundles and then knotting them. This is done after removing the rug from the loom. Knots in these warp bundles keep knots of the pile. They also provide tight finishing at the end of the rugs.